Retinal microglial activity is associated with cortical gray matter pathology in patients with multiple sclerosis



  • Retinal microglial pathology is associated with cortical pathology and is a potential prognostic biomarker for inflammatory events in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Why this matters?

  • Microglia, the immune cell of the central nervous system, shows widespread activation in MS. Clusters of activated and proliferating retinal microglia, visualized by optical coherence tomography (OCT), are known as hyperreflecting foci (HRF).

  • Inner nuclear layer (INL) HRF number was associated with radiologic no evidence of disease activity (rNEDA) and NEDA (defined as concomitance of both rNEDA and clinical NEDA [cNEDA]), and further examination of retinal microglia can help elucidate the role of microglia in inflammatory and degenerative diseases.